Exploratory Data Analysis is the process & a set of techniques for exploring, visualizing, and extracting insights from data.
In Simple terms EDA helps a data professional in mainly 3 ways:
Suppose Jack wants to have dinner with his friends at a new place. He's worried about not ruining this party, but also has 1000 questions about this new place.
What will he do???
Basically, he looks for all aspects to search for a good place for dinner. This is what the data scientist does when they are doing EDA.